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Title: Pigging and Chemical Treatment of Pipelines
Category: Pigsource Papers
Downloadable: No
Project No.:
Research Agency:
Catalog No.: pg1033e
Date of Publication: not available
Price: $25.00 US
Authors: Dr John S Smart and Gary L Smith
Abstract: The primary purposes of any pipeline maintenance program are to maintain flow capacity and prolong the life of the piping system. The two most common procedures for internal maintenance are chemical treatment and mechanical cleaning using pigs. Although the procedures differ in nature and effect, they are often used together to offer an efficient and lower cost approach to controlling significant pipeline problems. An understanding of how each method works will give a clearer picture of how to combine the two for a more effective, comprehensive pipeline maintenance program. Chemicals are used to treat oil and gas pipeline conditions such as pour point depression, improve fluid flow, control the buildup of wax, asphaltenes and mineral deposits, inhibit and control corrosion, kill bacteria, and prevent formation of gas hydrate products.Pigs are used for a variety of pipeline operations as well. Pigs are used in removing sediment, deposits and debris such as sand, wax, chalk, rust and scale. In addition to reducing flow efficiency, these deposits can also cause under-deposit corrosion, a major form of accelerated corrosion similar to pitting. Pigs are also used in removing accumulations of water. Water is the source of several problems in oil and gas pipelines in that it allows corrosion to occur, bacteria to grow, and hydrates to form in cold, high pressure lines. Bacteria generate hydrogen sulfide, cause corrosion, and produce plugging slimes and solids in the fluids. The are many other functions for pigs such as for geometry and inspection purposes not directly related to the combined use of chemicals. Water is the source of several problems in oil and gas pipelines in that it allows corrosion to occur and bacteria to grow. Bacteria are the cause of most corrosion found in crude oil and refined product pipelines. Bacteria generate hydrogen sulfide, cause corrosion, and produce plugging slimes and particulate in the fluids. Of equal value is the ability to remove sand, chalk, rust and scale deposits from inside the pipeline, which can cause under-deposit corrosion and provide bacteria with a home. The following sections of this paper review the use of pigs in applying chemicals used to treat pipelines, with an explanation of the purpose of the chemicals and how application by pigging enhances the performance of the totalsystem.
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