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Title: Subgouge deformations and the security of Arctic marine pipelines
Category: Papers by Dr Andrew Palmer
Downloadable: Yes 
Project No.:
Research Agency:
Catalog No.: AP114
Date of Publication: 1996
Price: $25.00 US
Authors: C M L Woodworth-Lynas, J D Nixon, R Phillips and A C Palmer
Abstract: Pipeline engineers have been concerned to protect underwater pipelines from ice masses, which can gouge 5 m and more below mudline. Their initial concern focused on a requirement to avoid contact between the ice and the pipeline: if the pipeline was trenched below the maximum gouging depth below mudline, the pipeline was supposed to be safe.

It is now clear that this is not so. Very large deformations occur in the soil below a gouge, so that a pipeline can be damaged even if it is too deep for the ice to reach it. This has been demonstrated by the PRISE joint-industry project, which combines centrifuge modelling; analytical and finite-element studies of gouging processes and pipeline response; and field studies of relic gouges. The results give some guidance on the necessary depth of burial, which is significantly greater than the maximum gouge depth, but this is a preliminary study and further verification and research are necessary.

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