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Title: The application of individual and societal risk assessment to CO2 pipelines
Downloadable: Yes 
Project No.:
Research Agency:
Catalog No.: 2266s
Date of Publication: Sep 1 2012 12:00AM
Price: $25.00 US
Authors: Dr Phil Cleaver and Harry Hopkins
Abstract: This paper starts by giving a summary of the historical background and development of guidance for the control of risks of possible releases from pipelines transporting flammable substances in the UK. The application of this guidance to CO2 pipelines is then considered. It is noted that the application of the accepted individual-risk approach for a natural gas pipeline is likely to be cautious when applied to a gaseous-phase CO2 pipeline, but does not pose any significant problems in its application. In contrast, it is shown that because dense-phase CO2 pipelines are likely to be thick-walled, the individual risk levels around these pipelines are likely to be low, but because of the great variability of atmospheric dispersion of dense gas clouds, the risk levels are likely to decay very slowly beyond about 200m from the pipeline. This poses something of a problem, as an approach based on individual risk would suggest that only small separation distances between the pipeline and occupied buildings are required and yet the maximum hazard distances if an event occurred could be considerably larger. Such a difference does not arise for natural gas pipelines, as the risk transects decay more rapidly with distance for a flammable hazard. It is suggested that societal risk evaluation using the criterion curve in PD8010: Part 3 offers a way of resolving this issue. Because such an approach is time-consuming and may not be warranted in every case, a screening method is suggested to use to help in routeing and design studies. In order to take into account the nature of the risk transect for CO2, the screening approach provides different initial separation distances from cities, towns and isolated villages.
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