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Title: Transporting anthropogenic CO2 in contrast to pipelines supporting early EOR
Category:
Downloadable: Yes 
Project No.:
Research Agency:
Catalog No.: 2215s
Date of Publication: Dec 1 2010 12:00AM
Price: $25.00 US
Authors: Dr Brian N Leis, Dr James H Saunders, Ted B Clark, and Dr Xian-Kui Zhu
Abstract: THIS PAPER EXAMINES aspects in quantifying arrest-toughness requirements to control running fracture in CO2 pipelines. Four key risk and safety discriminators were used to contrast transport of nearly pure CO2 for EOR to that of CO2 for CCS applications, including: the retrofitting of early EOR pipelines to provide for fracture control; differing impurities for CCS service that can increase required arrest toughness as compared to EOR applications; differing transported volume and routeing that lead to increased risk exposure for CCS pipelines; and technological uncertainties in assessing fracture-control requirements that develop due to impurity effects. Against this background key elements such as the equation of state and critical assumptions are evaluated as the basis for establishing practical direction for fracture control. Finally, the historic design space for many CO2 pipelines supporting EOR is contrasted to that for pipelines in CCS service.

Whereas some widely recognized reports indicate that technology to design CO2 pipelines is mature, some significant gaps were identified for CCS applications. The results indicated that arrest toughness is a very strong function of the minimum CO2 level, with an order of magnitude swing in the arrest toughness required for a 10% swing in minimum CO2 content as compared to pure CO2, with subtle differences in the constituents present being a major driver. On-line monitoring of injected streams was suggested to help manage the related risk. Finally, the often-used Battelle two-curve model adapted to CO2 applications – while validated in regard to near-pure CO2 applications and cases involving rich (dense-phase) natural gas – remains unvalidated in application to typical CCS product streams. Such was also the case for many supporting elements like the equation of state, with an expanded empirical database being key to ensuring viable fracture-arrest predictions.

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