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Title: High-temperature pipeline design
Category: Technical papers from the Journal of Pipeline Integrity
Downloadable: Yes 
Project No.:
Research Agency:
Catalog No.: 2078
Date of Publication: Q4, 2005
Price: $25.00 US
Authors: John G Greenslade, Dr J F (Derick) Nixon, and D W (Wes) Dyck
Abstract: HIGH-TEMPERATURE operation is an alternative to the use of a diluent to reduce the viscosity of heavy oil or bitumen for pipeline transportation. This paper deals primarily with two fundamental design issues for a hot bitumen (hotbit) pipeline: modeling the restart problem, and establishing the maximum practical operating temperature.

The concept of flow capacity is introduced to model the transient behavior during restart of a hightemperature pipeline filled with a high-viscosity fluid that has cooled during a shutdown. The heat lost from a buried high-temperature pipeline causes environmental disturbance by elevating the ground temperature near the pipeline. This can alter growing conditions above even an insulated, deeplyburied, pipeline. Results are presented for a hypothetical case modeled using a thermal simulator developed by one of the authors.

Axial thermal loads increasingly constrain the design and operation of a buried pipeline as higher operating temperatures are considered. Strain-based design affords the opportunity to design for higher operating temperatures than allowable stress-based design techniques. With either design method, there is a temperature at which expansion loops are required partially to relieve the thermal stress. As the design temperature increases, there is a point at which an above-grade pipeline becomes an attractive option.

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